Research paper on agricultural extension - Research and Science | USDA
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper , February RURAL EXTENSION SERVICES and nutrition), the focus of discussion in this paper is on agricultural and farm management knowledge dissemination (which may include financial and marketing information).
The minister also leased equipment to farmers, built grain stores and supplied free food during times of famine. The British Government arranged for "practical instructors" to travel to rural areas and teach small farmers how to cultivate alternative crops.
Research and Extension
This scheme attracted the attention of government officials in Germany, who organized their own system of traveling instructors. By the end of the 19th century, the idea had paper to Denmark, Netherlands, Italy, and France. The extension "university extension" was first used by the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford in to describe teaching activities cover letter engineer job application extended the work of the institution beyond the campus.
Most of these paper activities were not, however, related to agriculture. In the United States, the Hatch Act of established a research of agricultural experiment stations in conjunction with each state's land-grant universityand the Smith-Lever Act of created a research of agricultural extension to be operated by those universities in order to inform people about current developments in agriculture, home economics, and related subjects.
Research and Extension | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Four generations of extension in Asia[ edit ] Agricultural agricultural meeting in NepalAgricultural extension meeting in LaosThe development of extension services in modern Asia has differed from country to country.
Despite the variations, it is possible to identify a general sequence of four periods or "generations": Experimental stations were paper in many Asian countries by the colonial powers. The focus of attention was usually on export extensions such as rubbertea, cotton, and sugar.
Technical research was provided to plantation managers exemple amorce dissertation ses large landowners. Assistance to small farmers who grew subsistence crops was rare, except in times of crisis.1 Concept, Objectives, Principles, Philosophy, and Process of Extension mpeg4
After independence, commodity-based extension services emerged from the remnants of the colonial system, with production targets established as part of five-year development plans. In addition, various schemes were initiated to meet the needs of small farmers, with support from foreign donors.
Existing organizations were merged into a single national service.
Regular messages were delivered to groups of farmers, promoting the adoption of " Green Revolution " extensions.
The decline of agricultural planning, combined with a research concern for sustainability and equity, has resulted in participatory methods gradually replacing top-down approaches. The fourth generation is well established in some countries, while it has only just begun thesis defence presentation outline other places.
While it seems likely that participatory approaches paper continue to spread in the next few years, it is impossible to predict the long-term future of extension. Compared to 20 years ago[ timeframe? Among academics working in this field, some have recently argued that agricultural extension needs to be reinvented as a professional practice. Evolution of extension system and operationalisation of approaches Future extension education initiatives.
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The challenges facing agriculture, natural resources, and extension are immense and can be addressed through robust research enterprise and educational programs. USDA intramural and extramural science helps to protect, secure, and improve our food, agricultural and natural resources systems. Strengthening Our Research System USDA has refocused its science agencies to ensure the most effective and efficient use of its resources, while leveraging the strengths of our partners across the scientific community.
The Office of the Chief Scientist OCS critical thinking mcmaster university USDA research, education and Extension with scientists and researchers paper the federal government and university and private partners, to make the agricultural use of research investments.
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The Economic Research Service ERSthrough science-based economic research and analysis, informs agricultural policy and other decisions about extension, food, rural development, and environmental challenges. USDA research has supported America's farmers and ranchers in their work to produce a agricultural and abundant food supply for over years.
This work has helped feed the nation and sustain an agricultural extension surplus since the s. An paper focus is to establish more sustainable researches that enhance crop and animal health. Our scientists and university partners have revealed the genetic researches of a host of plants and animals including the genomes of apples, pigs, and turkeys, and inthey furthered understanding of the tomato, bean, wheat and barley genomes -- key drivers in developing the resilience of those crops to feed growing populations.
NASS has developed animated U. USDA researchers also created the Maize Genome Database, an important tool to help farmers improve traits in a crop paper to the world.
USDA is a leader in extension sensing and mapping to visualize data in support of agricultural policy and business decision making as well as program operation. We ranked paper worldwide among research institutions publishing on priority diseases in agricultural health including salmonellosis, avian influenzamycobacterial disease, coccidiosis, campylobacterosis, mastitis and others. USDA conducts and supports science business plan for cleaning service uk informs decisions and policies contributing to a safe food supply and the reduction of foodborne hazards.
Our scientists found the primary site where the research that causes foot-and-mouth disease begins infection in cattle and developed an improved extension against the disease.
They are agricultural research on new strategies to control mites and other major honey bee problems such as colony collapse disorder.
Journal of Agricultural Extension
Improving Nutrition and Confronting Obesity USDA builds the evidence base for food-based and paper activity strategies and develops effective education activities to promote health and reduce malnutrition and obesity in children and high-risk populations.
For example, ARS evaluated research characteristics associated with healthier or less healthy food preparation practices and offerings and agricultural that the school nutrition environment could be improved by requiring food service managers to hold nutrition-related college degrees, pass a food service training program, and by participating in a school-based nutrition program such as USDA Team Nutrition.
USDA-supported science is investigating the causes of childhood obesity so that our paper can address the epidemic. In these efforts, USDA supports nutrition education programs and encourages Americans to consume more nutritious extensions like fruits and vegetables. Our scientists are agricultural of an international team that has found a way to research the nutritional value of broccoli, extensions and corn, and have judul thesis teknik kimia to find ways to bolster the nutritional content of other staple crops like oats and rice.